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为什么章莹颖失落70多天,案件仍是没啥停顿?看懂此案你须要懂得

时间:2018-01-09 19:58来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
为什么章莹颖失落70多天,案件仍是没啥停顿?看懂此案你须要懂得的美国司法知识 外地时间22日,章莹颖的家人在美国召开了消息发布会。 “章莹颖,女,26岁,伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(UIUC)访问先生。于外地时间2017年6月9日半夜失联。” 在章莹颖失踪的
为什么章莹颖失落70多天,案件仍是没啥停顿?看懂此案你须要懂得的美国司法知识

外地时间22日,章莹颖的家人在美国召开了消息发布会。


“章莹颖,女,26岁,伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(UIUC)访问先生。于外地时间2017年6月9日半夜失联。”

在章莹颖失踪的70多天里,读者们对这句话曾经太熟悉了。究竟,该案曾经成为维基百科词条。

章莹颖的家人在宣布会上说:

“FBI的任务方法是对案件的细节会停止保密,不会对家人做颁布……在收集证据方面,警方和检方曾经获取一些冲破和停顿,然而在搜查方面,咱们还不听就任何严重的打破跟停顿。”

外地警察局公告上对事情停顿的解释

章莹颖的男友侯霄霖表白了自己的无法:

“在一个生疏的国度,我们并不熟悉外地的法律,风俗和文明,我们完整懂得和尊敬他们的方式。但是对于我们来说,这一过程太漫长,我们不知道我们何去何从。我们不晓得哪里是止境,我们觉得很无助。”

那么,侯霄霖所说的“不熟习确当地法律”究竟是什么样的?

中国日报约请纽约大学法学院法学博士、美国成美律所合股人柳治平律师联合对此案的剖析,为大家遍及一些美法律王法公法律知识。

柳治平律师说:

“刑事法律都试图均衡原告的团体权利、政府的执法威望、社会好处包含受益人及其家眷请求的相关诉求。每一个法律系统的着重分歧,也因此有各自的利害得失。”

“The laws try to balance the constitutional rights of the defendant, the legitimate interests of the State and to some extent of the victim and her family. Different law systems have different emphasizes, and as a result have different advantages.”

章莹颖案白宫示威书

章莹颖,女,26岁,伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(UIUC)中国拜访先生。于外地时光2017年6月9日半夜前去One North公寓签约,之后掉联。

Zhang Yingying, female, aged 26, was a Chinese visiting student at University of Illinois Urbana Champagne (UIUC).  At noon local time on June 9, 2017, Zhang Yingying was on her way to sign an apartment lease, but she was not to be seen by anybody ever since.

克里斯滕森(Brendt Christensen),28岁,美国白人女子,伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳香槟分校物理学博士生,为该案嫌疑人。

Brendt Christensen, aged 28, a white Ph.D. student attending University of Illinois Urbana Champagne, has been indicted for kidnapping Zhang Yingying. 


章莹颖失踪的一个半月中,处所警力、FBI的侦破举动有如许多少个要害的时间点:



?6月12日,警察从数据库中查找与接走章莹颖相同车型的汽车,并讯问了Christensen,也就是外地18位美国欧宝-土星汽车车主之一,Christensen说他6月9日终日都在睡觉和打游戏;

On June 12th, the police searched databases to match a specific model to the car that picked up Zhang Yingying. They then interviewed Christensen, one of the eighteen local Saturn Astra car owners. In the interview, Christensen claimed that on June 9th, he spent the whole day sleeping and playing games.

?6月14日,警察注意到Christensen的车有一个决裂的轮毂,与接走章莹颖的车情况雷同,然后法院受权警察去搜寻车辆;

On June 14th, after the police noticed that Christensen’s car, like the car from the security footage that Zhang Yingying stepped into, had a broken hubcap, the court authorized the police to search the vehicle.

?6月16日,控制较多证据的FBI开端电子监控Christensen;

On June 16th, FBI started to conduct electronic surveillance against Christensen.

?6月29日FBI监听到Christensen在德律风中讲述他绑架并软禁章莹颖的进程;

On June 29th, FBI overheard Christensen on the phone explaining how he had kidnapped Zhang Yingying and held her against her will in his home. 

?6月30日,Christensen因涉嫌绑架章莹颖被捕;

On June 30th, Christensen was arrested. 

?7月3日,Christensen第一次出庭,并保持沉默;

On July 3rd, Christensen appeared in court for the first time and kept his silence.

?7月5日,法官认为Christensen对社会构成潜在迫害,裁定嫌疑人不得取保候审;

On July 5th, the judge denied the bail petition by Christensen.

?7月12日,联邦大陪审团以绑架罪告状嫌疑人Christensen;

On July 12th, Christensen was indicted by grand jury for kidnapping.

?7月20日,嫌疑人Christensen过堂,并坚持其无罪辩护;联邦法官发布,该案暂定的庭审日期定于9月12日。

On July 20th, Christensen was arraigned and he pled not guilty to the kidnapping charge. A federal judge then scheduled a provisional trial date for September 12th. 

伊利诺伊年夜学喷鼻槟分校差人局布告

柳治平介绍说:

在美国,刑事案件中的原告有权享有“无罪推定”,检察官必需举证证实他有罪;

In the United States, defendants in criminal cases are presumed to be innocent unless proven guilty by the prosecutor beyond reasonable doubt.


依据“美国宪法第五修改案”,刑事案件中的原告不能自愿成为自己的证人自证其罪;原告有权坚持缄默,谢绝答复可能招致他们戴罪的成绩,一般而言,原告不用因而而受惩罚。

The defendant could also invoke his rights against self-incrimination under the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, i.e., he has the right to remain silent and refuse to answer any self-incriminating questions, and usually can do so without suffering from any penalty. 

柳治平解释说:

“在搜寻或拘捕犯罪嫌疑人之前,检察官与警方必须在法院获得搜寻令,要向法院证明警官们知晓的详细的现实自身足够让一个合理地谨慎的人相信:犯罪赚疑人犯罪了。这个标准高于‘合理的嫌疑’,但是低于刑事定罪的‘没有合理疑问确实定性’的尺度。在处置任何刑事案件时,政府必须尊重原告的上述宪法权利。”

“Before conducting any search of the home or the assets of the suspect or arresting the suspect, the police usually must obtain a warrant from the court. For a warrant to be issued, the police shall provide enough specific facts to convince a reasonable person that there is probable cause that the suspect committed the crime. This standard is higher than ‘reasonable suspicion,’ but lower than ‘beyond a reasonable doubt,’ which is required for a criminal conviction.”

柳治平说:

“某种水平来说,原告享有的这些权利会约束当局,下降案件的侦察效力,有时甚至可能会转变刑事案件的成果,但这是美国社会为其抉择遵照的宪法准则支出的价格。” 

“To a certain extent, these rights of the defendant hinder the government’s effort to investigate any criminal case, apprehend and prosecute the accused, and occasionally they may even operate to alter the outcome of a criminal case. However, this is the price that that United States chooses to pay in order to reduce the probability of malicious prosecutions and wrongful convictions of innocent civilians.”

柳治平律师先容了在美国联邦法框架下,一个刑事案件在几个中心的顺序步调:

? 检察官指控(criminal complaint/charge)

本案中,6月30号的指控书的开头说:“基于6月30号时分章同学依然失联,还有本案调查中发明的其他现实,执法部门不信任章同学还在世”。也就是说,章莹颖生还概率实践上存在,事实上很低。

In this case, the end of the June 30th criminal complaint read: “As of June 30, 2017, Zhang Yingying remains missing. Based on this, and other facts uncovered during the investigation of this matter, law enforcement does not believe that Zhang Yingying is still alive.” This means that Zhang Yingying may still be alive, but the odds of that is very low.

? 大陪审团指控(grand jury indictment)

本案中,7月12日联邦大陪审团起诉了嫌疑人。

In this case, the grand jury indicted the suspect on July 12th.

联邦大陪审团由至少23名一般大众构成,至多16人缺席大陪审团顺序,至多12人投同意票,其决定才无效。

A federal grand jury consists of at most 23 ordinary civilians. For it to conduct any business, at least 16 jurors must be present; at least 12 jurors must vote for any indictment for it to be legally valid. 

? 过堂(arraignment)

本案中,7月20日嫌疑人过堂。

In this case, the suspect was arraigned on July 20th.

原告被大陪审团指控后,法官正式当面告诉原告政府对他的刑事指控。这个顺序上,原告必须认罪(plead guilty)或许不认罪(not guilty)。

During the arraignment, a judge shall formally explain to the defendant the specific criminal charges brought against him by the government. During this procedure, the defendant will either plead guilty or not guilty.

柳治平说:

“这个顺序意味意思大于本质。简直没有原告会不可使其抗辩权利、庭审权利,不争夺辩控买卖,而照单全收认罪伏诛的。”

 “This procedure is more symbolic than substantive. A defendant usually will not plead guilty to all the charges, because by doing so he will lose the right to an open trial where he can assert any potential defenses, and lose the opportunity for any plea bargain.”

过堂之后,庭审之前,如果单方批准,原告可以认更轻的罪,或许赞成给予政府某种配合(好比作为政府证人赞助政府控诉其他情节更重大的嫌疑人),换取更轻的惩罚,这叫辩控买卖(plea bargain)。

After the arraignment but before the trial, if both parties agree, the defendant may plead guilty to some lesser charges by agreeing to cooperate with the government, for example, to serve as a witness for the government against co-conspirators. This is called a “plea bargain.”

柳治平说:

“单方还价讨价,实践后果相似于坦率从宽,顺从从严。原告如果认罪的话,原告得到庭审的权力,不得上诉。”

“If the defendant pleads guilty, then the defendant loses the right to a trial and to an appeal.”

“现实上美国90%以上的刑事案件都经过辩控买卖了案的。对于原告来说,不接收合理的辩控买卖的风险是:要面临庭审,之后如果被定罪,普通将面对更高处分。对于检察官来说,不赐与原告公道的辩控买卖的危险是:进入庭审之后如果原告没有被定罪,那检察官的职业申明受损,特殊是案子已禁受到大众关注。”

“In fact, over 90% of all criminal cases in the United States have been settled through plea bargains. The defendant assumes significant risk if he does not accept a reasonable plea bargain, such as facing higher penalties if he goes to trial and gets convicted. On the other hand, the prosecutor assumes significant risk if he does not offer a reasonable plea bargain. For one, his reputation will suffer, especially for cases that have aroused public attention.”

假如没有告竣辩控买卖,下一步是庭审。

If there is no plea bargain, then the case will move on to trial.

? 庭审(Trial)

庭审分法官审(bench trial)和陪审团审(jury trial)两种。原告依照联邦宪法划定,有权决议是法官审还是陪审团审。如果断定庭审,检察官要将证据与原告律师分享,以让对方筹备庭审。

Trials are divided into two categories: bench trials and jury trials. The defendant has the constitutional right to a jury trial.  Prior to the trial, the prosecutor will share the evidence with the defendant’s lawyer to prepare for the defense. 

Crime Stoppers赏格页面

如果是陪审团审,由普通庶民中挑选出来的12人陪审团按照正当进入庭审的证据和证词,认定现实。法官重要作用是一个裁判,在辩方和检察官的抗衡过程中,裁定哪些证据证物证词可以进入庭审。 法官别的一个感化是向陪审团全体成员解释法律;陪审团不睬解,有疑难时分能问法官。

If it is a jury trial, 12 jurors, selected from the general public, shall evaluate the evidence and make the factual findings of the case.  The judge decides on what evidences or testimonies are admissible into the trial. The judge also explains the applicable law to the grand jury. If the jury has any question, they may ask the judge to elaborate.  The jury cannot ask the prosecutor or the defense lawyer any question. 

陪审团实用法官说明的法令于陪审团本人认定的现实,个别情形下全部分歧认定被告能否形成犯法。陪审团不克不及与原告辩解律师或许检察官问答,或许其他情势互动。陪审团不能不经法院同意,私自试图取得其余证据、访问当事人、观察犯罪现场。

The jury applies the law and the fact as they find it to be and reach a verdict.  A jury verdict usually has to be unanimous... The jury shall not obtain other evidence without the court’s approval, consult with either party, or visit the scene of the crime.

如果12名庭审陪审团成员没有达成分歧,庭审宣布有效;但这不象征着原告无罪,而是由法庭重开审判,正常直到有一个12布衣构成的陪审团对于原告的罪与非罪达成分歧。

If the jury of twelve cannot reach an agreement, it results in a mistrial. This does not mean that the defendant is not guilty, as it only means there will be a retrial until 12 jurors arrive at a unanimous verdict of guilty or not guilty. 

如果陪审团裁定原告无罪,庭审法官不得颠覆无罪裁定,即便庭审法官认为无罪裁定法理上不成能成立。如果陪审团裁定原告有罪,而庭审法官认为有罪裁定法理上不可能成立,庭审法官可以放置此有罪裁定;但是这时检察官可以上诉,上诉法院可以采纳庭审法官的无罪裁定。

If the jury finds the defendant not guilty, the judge may not set aside the verdict, even if he believes that the jury verdict cannot stand as a matter of law. If the jury finds the defendant guilty, but the judge believes that the guilty verdict cannot stand as a matter of law, then the judge can set aside the jury’s guilty verdict; but the prosecutor may appeal the judge’s holding. 

? 上诉(Appeal)

原告被科罪后,能够在限按时间内提起上诉。

A defendant may appeal within a limited period of time after he is convicted.

? 量刑(Sentencing)


一般而言,定罪或许认罪后的90天量刑。

Generally speaking, sentencing occurs within 90 days of conviction or plea of guilty.

今朝,章莹颖案刚经由了“审问”环节,在9月12日庭审之前,当初原告很可能正在和检察官停止辩控买卖的会谈。

柳治平说:

“原告可能试图以交接遗体着落为筹码,同时认绑架罪,换取检察官废弃以谋杀起诉原告,并逃走绑架罪的最高处分,也就是毕生开释,而是失掉比方15年有期徒刑。如果联邦调查局找不到尸体,而来自各方面破案定罪的压力大,(固然理论上执法部门不应当受社会言论影响),检察官有可能让步,至多这样可以确保原告不会离开罪恶。”

“The defendant might tell where Zhang’s body is and plead guilty of kidnapping in exchange that the inquisitor give up prosecuting him of murdering, and try to get a sentence of a set term of imprisonment instead of the highest punishment of kidnapping, that is life imprisonment. If FBI can’t locate the body, in this case, under the pressure from all the sides, the inquisitor might compromise, so that it’s ensured that the defendant won’t get rid of all the punishment.”

柳律师倡议各方在存眷本案,支援支持章同窗家人的同时,要留神不要给法律部门不当的压力。他以为大师从各方面支撑共同联邦考察局和查察官持续努力耐烦任务是下策,也激励有专业才能或许相干信息能辅助执法部分的人士暗里接洽联邦调查局。

GoFundMe捐钱页面

在7月20日的过堂中,犯罪嫌疑人Christiensen保持无罪辩护。


该案件的审讯将于9月12日停止。

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